Finishing

Workshop Teaser – Make A Set of Roubo Squares

Every participant will begin with a slab of brass which we will cut on the table saw to yield the preferred number of graduated squares.

Once these have been cut and the corners cleaned up, they will be laid out for the graduated nesting sizes.

Ogees are cut and filed into the ends, and all the detailing is finished in preparation for the silver soldering of the shoe on the outside of the beam.

If this workshop interests you, drop me a line via the Comments or Contact functions of the site.  It will be June 20-22, and the tuition + materials is $425.  You will leave with a completed set of squares.

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Other workshops at the Barn this summer are:

Historic Finishing

Make A Roubo Shoulder Knife

Make A Ripple Molding Machine

Mel’s Wax Available ~January 24!

Wish me luck!  After years of product development and clearing the decks at the Barn on White Run, and finding reliable suppliers for some of the esoteric materials involved (still crossing my fingers on that one), I am thrilled to announce that Mel’s Wax will be in the donsbarn.com Store in the coming days and could begin shipping on or about January 24, 2019.

This is a hand-made ultra high performance archival furniture maintenance product, fussy to formulate and manufacture.  On a good day doing nothing else I can produce 40-50 jars.  But rarely is there a day when I do nothing else.

More complete information on the creation, properties and utility of Mel’s Wax will be posted here and at a currently-under-development web site dedicated to it, which will go live as soon as I can get all the documents created for it.  Eventually that web site will also include detailed video about using it and other related topics.

To give you a snapshot of this product I have posted below some testimonials and the text of the instructional brochure that will accompany each jar.

Mel’s Wax will be $49 for a 4 oz. jar, domestic shipping included.  A little goes a very long way.

***THIS PRODUCT WILL NOT BE SHIPPED TO CALIFORNIA.*** 

Do not complain to me, complain to your state gubmint officials and the environmental trial lawyers they are attached to.

 

Here are some of the comments by product testers over the past couple of years.

I do know that [name deleted] has used it quite a bit and likes it. I used it on one commission piece and it worked really nice. It went from really soft to remarkably hard like magic.

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I cleaned the [artifact] and retouched where necessary then as a final layer applied a very thin layer of Mel’s Wax.  She just came back one year later and [Mel’s Wax] helped substantially and though it needs cleaning again but does not have the hazy (ugly) look.  My client was very happy!  Thank you for giving me the tools and materials to think this through.

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The pictures I will send you are of a small table that I first polished out with extra fine polishing compound and a wheel buffer. Then I applied [Mel’s Wax] to half of the top, buffed it by hand and compared the two halves.  I see a difference between the waxed and un-waxed sides. The waxed side has more luster and gives the surface more depth. There is enough of a difference that would make me reach for the wax on a similar project.

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a really lovely 1889 German music box came into my life today and I used [Mel’s Wax] to clean and polish the original finish , which I suspect is shellac though I did not test it, the metal disc also had a treatment with [Mel’s Wax] and I really am happy with the performance of the wax.  It’s very very thin and I like that immensely, it dried very quickly in my 75 degree shop with about 70 percent humidity, and buffed to very pleasing sheen, using a cotton tee shirt scrap


 

[Buffing, Streaking, and Smudging] is where Mel’s Wax excels. My test case is the dining table in this home. It appears to be only a wax finish on the original parts of the top and getting an even shine is difficult. In the past, [another product] was my go-to wax for this job. Mel’s Wax eclipsed [the other wax] in both ease of application and speed in buffing. Best of all, it buffed smudge and streak free–the buffing took a fraction of the time I usually spent buffing out the [other wax].


 

I found Mel’s Wax to be excellent for prophylactic waxing, especially over already waxed surfaces. I would say that I cut my application and buffing time in half from what I usually spent using [other products] and got streak-free finishes. I still have my arsenal of other waxes for either, jobs not worthy of Mel’s Wax, or jobs where Mel’s Wax isn’t an appropriate choice. I think it would be an excellent household wax as I don’t think it could be “over-used”.

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The Mel’s Wax Instructional Brochure (will be included with every jar)

Mel’s Wax is a patented high-performance semi-liquid, easy-to-use furniture care product created by museum furniture conservators for their own professional use. Mel’s Wax is appropriate for priceless antiques, treasured family heirlooms, wooden objects d’art, and even architectural woodworking. Mel’s Wax does not need “elbow grease” for either application or buffing.

WARNING: DO NOT USE on food preparation surfaces or utensils. DO NOT USE on fragile or flaking furniture surfaces, or surfaces sensitive to mineral spirits or water.

DIRECTIONS FOR USE

1. Shake the jar of Mel’s Wax before using.
2. First perform this fast, simple test to make sure that Mel’s Wax will not harm the surface of your furniture.

Apply small dab of Mel’s Wax to an inconspicuous area with a clean, soft cloth or cotton swab, making sure that this area has the same finish and appearance as the rest the piece. Gently rub on Mel’s Wax, wait about 5 minutes, then wipe the area with a clean cotton swab or cosmetics pad. You may notice dirt and grime on the swab, but if the test area looks sound and a bit shiny, you can proceed.

3. Apply a small amount with a clean, soft, lint-free cloth in a well-ventilated area. A little goes a LONG way, less is better. After applying Mel’s Wax you should see an even, slightly glossy residue over the area being treated, indicating you have used enough Mel’s Wax. This gloss may diminish as the polish dries.
4. Wait until completely dry. Generally an hour is sufficient.
5. Gently buff the surface with a second, clean, soft, lint-free cloth. Thorough and gentle rubbing with the cloth is all that is necessary for the polish to produce its luster.
6. Store the sealed jar of Mel’s Wax in a cool place; Mel’s Wax contains natural and synthetic ingredients including petroleum distillate, but no preservatives or stabilizers. Do not let it freeze.

Your furniture is now protected and enhanced with Mel’s Wax and ready for storage, exhibit, or use.

ROUTINE CARE: For pieces treated with Mel’s Wax, ongoing care requires only periodic dusting with a clean, soft, lint-free cloth dampened with a few drops of distilled water. If the surface is dirty, put a few drops of a mild detergent in 8oz. of distilled water and use it to make a damp (not soaking wet) cleaning cloth. Then wipe using a second clean, soft, lint-free cloth dampened with distilled water alone, and finally wipe with a third, clean, dry, soft, lint-free cloth. For furniture in daily use you may have to re-apply Mel’s Wax every few months. If your furniture is not often handled or used, you may not need to re-apply Mel’s Wax for many years.

DISCLAIMER: Follow all directions above. Mel’s Wax is not a substitute for a furniture finish. It has been designed as a museum quality maintenance coating to preserve a wide variety of existing furniture finishes. It is not intended for high-stress surfaces like wooden food-preparation counters or utensils, or floors. If the surface still appears “parched” after buffing, the problem is likely with the artifact’s surface.

SAFETY/CAUTION: Mel’s Wax is a chemical product, not intended for human, animal, or plant consumption. Apply in a well ventilated area while wearing eye protection. Wear non-latex surgical-type disposable gloves when applying Mel’s Wax or wash your hands afterwards with soap and water. Keep out of reach of children. Dispose of any materials used for applying Mel’s Wax as you would any other household cleaning products.

What is “Mel’s Wax?”

This is an archival quality product which will protect the surface finish of your furniture, thereby preserving the finish while the furniture it remains in careful use. Mel’s Wax has proven to be an excellent product for furniture in typical domestic use. It provides a durable lustrous appearance, easily maintained with gentle dusting and cleaning.

Each ingredient of Mel’s Wax was selected after careful scientific review, and Mel’s Wax was formulated to enhance ease-of-use and reduce any harmful effects to artifacts that can be caused by many commercial furniture care products.

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***THIS PRODUCT WILL NOT BE SHIPPED TO CALIFORNIA.*** 

 

 

GroopShop Day 2 +

The second day of GroopShop was just as engaging and instructive as the first, and one again I was paying so much attention to the speakers that my photo record was not as good as it should have been.

The opening session was a demo by one of the reps from Apollo Spray Systems, the HVLP units used widely in our circles.  The blow-by-blow of the history of product development was fascinating to me.

My friends Mark and Valeri from Besway/Benco, manufacturers of chemicals and products for the finishing room, provided a chilling account of the regulatory war against our trade.  Do Gooders are relentless, that is why they win unless they are opposed in a smash-mouth fashion by someone with the means to do so.  Since sanctimonious moral certitude is the regulator’s fuel, I do not expect us to prevail for the most part.

Freddy Roman gave an impassioned and enlightening talk about using social media for marketing his business.  In that realm he really is the Energizer bunny.  Were I less curmudgeonly I might go this route.

I gave my 120-minute spiel on “Decoding Hide Glue,” covering everything from manufacture to modification to application.  We got almost all of it recorded and it will soon  be posted, or at least as soon as I can knit it all together.

Bill Ryan is an on-site-work warrior doing mostly architectural punch-list work in new construction, and he brought his complete traveling workshop with him to show its contents and applications.  Very inspiring.  I am still kicking myself for not taking a picture of his traveling kit.

Tom Delvecchio presented his recent fascination and exploration of 3D printing and its applications to his work in the restoration shop.  I’ve long been considering this technology, and since there is a manufacturer her in this county I will delve more deeply.

The after-dinner talk was one of the most intriguing I’ve seen as a young fellow demonstrated 3D imaging and its link to robotic 3D manufacturing.  The implication for replicating metal furniture parts especially was astounding.  We used to work on 3D imaging at SI and the progress made in this area is staggering.

The final presenter for the gathering was the next morning with the rep from Mohawk covering his line of products, and how that offering has changed over time.  Like many practitioners of the furniture restoration arts Mohawk is what I cut my teeth on; I attended a Touch-Up workshop back in 1974 and still have drawers full of the materials I got then, using them as needed to this day.

And thus endeth GroopShop 2018.  As always I came away inspired and informed.  If you have any interest in the finishing and restoration arts, you should belong to the Professional Refinishers Group.

Mrs. Barn and I spent the afternoon at the Atlanta Botanical Garden.  It was delightful.  Then we drove home.  Less delightful.

GroopShop 2018 – Day 1

Recently we traveled to Greater Atlanta to attend this year’s gathering of the Professional Refinisher’s Group, a/k/a “Groop,” and online forum to which I have belonged for almost twenty years.  Though initially a “virtual” community, we started assembling almost annually for the past 16 years.

Our hosts this year were the cooperative known as Southern Restorations whose large enterprise is steered by Brian Webster.

Note:  If you have even a passing interest in furniture finishing or restoration, you SHOULD be a member of Groop.  For further information on joining click here.  If you attended the HO Studley exhibit in Cedar Rapids IA you undoubtedly met some of our members, as most of the docents were volunteers from Groop.

Once again GroopShop was an invigorating time of fellowship and sometimes idiosyncratic conversations ranging from surviving running a small business in an esoteric marketplace to arcane discussions of technical subjects and all points in between (virtually all the members of Groop are some version of small businesses).  I know my interest was piqued on a regular basis throughout the three days, sometimes so much I forgot to take pictures..

After opening introductions and such the first demonstration of the event was for a low-impact abrasive cleaning system that was especially appealing to our members who undertake architectural work.  Were I a younger man living near the city trying to build a business, this is a device I would certainly consider obtaining.  The results were impressive, and I brought home a cleaned table leg to see how it finishes up.

Next came an excellent presentation on recent advances in waterborne coatings systems.  While I do not use much in the way of these products, if I had a commercial refinishing shop in this age of envirohysteria, I would.

Next came Dan and Tredway demonstrating the process by which they mold and cast replicas.  I especially enjoyed this not only because I have done so much of this, but because they use a very different product line/technology than I do.  (They are Smooth-On guys and I am a Polytek guy)  Somehow I wound up with the fancy eagle, and will probably paint and gild it and perhaps put it in next year’s Groop fundraising auction.  In the mean time I will experiment with making a gelatin mold plaster cast from it.

RandyB gave another inspiring talk about life in the antiques preservation trade.  His creativity knows no bounds.  His many years of caring for collectors’ and dealers has left him with a wealth of experience and knowledge.  I first met Randy while teaching at DCTC decades ago.

BobC gave his paean to oil finishes.  Intriguing.  I think there could be an intersection between them and polissoirs.

After dinner we held our annual Refinishing Jeopardy tournament, with host MikeM invoking Sicilian rules more than once.  Like most things Sicilian it is best not to ask too much about them.  I served as the adjudicating judge for any disputed answers.  Thanks to some curious scorekeeping the hilarity was sustained to the very end.

And thus endeth Day 1.

Shellac Wax Now Available in The Store

At long last, pure shellax wax is now available from the donsbarn.com store.  I know a few of you have already found it as I have the orders in my “Pending” box to go to the Post Office next time I am in town.

Shellac wax, extracted from raw stick lac, is the second hardest of the naturally occurring waxes.  Because it is so hard and tends to be brittle at cooler temperatures it is generally used as a blend with beeswax to render it more useful as a block wax.  It is especially useful for polishing turnings by placing the block of blended wax directly against the surface of the rotating workpiece to melt it into the surface, followed by burnishing with a polissoir. It is also highly prized as an ingredient in paste wax/grain filler used with a polissoir.

My shellac wax is imported directly from the factory in east central India and is further refined here by molten filtering and forming into quarter-pound blocks for packaging.

Shellac wax is $19/quarter-pound, domestic shipping included.  For foreign or overseas shipping please contact me.

Summer 2019 Workshops at the Barn

I have settled on the topics and approximate schedule for next summer’s classes here in the hinterlands, with three of the four classes emphasizing toolmaking.  I will post about them in greater detail in the near future.  One minor change I’ll be instituting next year is that three-day workshops will now be Thursday-Friday-Saturday rather than Friday-Saturday-Sunday as before.

June’s class will be a metalworking event, Making A Nested Set of Roubo’s Squares.   The objective will be for each attendee to create a set of four or five solid brass footed squares, the sort illustrated in Roubo’s Plate 308, Figure 2.  The special emphasis will be on silver soldering, a transforming skill for the toolmaker’s shop.  The tentative dates for this are June 6-8 or 20-22, $375 + $25 for materials.

July’s class will be my annual offering of Historic Wood Finishing.  Each participant will complete a series of exercises I have devised for the most efficient learning experience to overcome finishing fears and difficulties.  Of particular importance are the aspects of surface preparation and the use and application of wax and spirit varnish finishes using the techniques of the 1700s.  Probably July 11-13, $375.

In August we will continue the pursuit of Roubo’s tool kit, this time Making and Using Roubo’s Shoulder Knife.  I have no way to know exactly how prevalent was this tool’s use in ancient days, but I suspect more than I can imagine.  Each participant will fabricate a shoulder knife to fit their own torso, so its use can be both the most comfortable and the most effective.  Probably August 15-17, $375.

The final class for the year will be a week-long Build A Ripple Molding Cutter.  As I have been pursuing this topic and blogging about it, fellow ripple-ista John Hurn and I have settled on a compact design we think can be built by every attendee in a five-day session.  Together we will be teaching the process of ripple moldings and fabricating the machines that make them.  September 23-27, $750 plus $200 materials fee.

Save the dates and drop me a line for more information.

Writing Desk – Polishing and Assembly

Once the finishing process was essentially complete it was time to rub out the surfaces and glue-up the desk.  Since my goal for the surface was to present an unfilled, lightly-worn, ancient-but-well-cared-for appearance and character I rubbed down all the surfaces to accomplish those ends.

My typical procedure for this undertaking is to abrade the surface with ultra-fine steel wool saturated with paste wax or conversely a 4F pumice/paste wax blend, incorporating or succeeded by the inclusion of tripoli/rottenstone to leave subtle traces of “ancient schmutz” in the crevices.

In this instance I mixed up a paste wax/rottenstone blend to use with the steel wool, and proceeded to rub every exposed surface until the outcome arrived at the destination I was aiming for.

The “glow” and subtle grain of the resultant surface was so glorious I had to just look at it for a while.

This comparison of a rubbed-out (L) vs. raw surface (R) is demonstrative of the transformation.

This is the address I was looking for.

With the finishing mostly done I glued everything together with hide glue, and suddenly there was a complete piece of furniture staring me straight in the eye.  There were only a couple of final steps to take, applying another round of pad finishing to the writing surface before rubbing that out, and buffing off the rottenstone-laced dried paste wax.

Writing Desk Finishing – Color and Craqueleur

With the desk surfaces well-sealed with lemon shellac and the finish foundation built up with garnet shellac it was time to wrap up the color work while simultaneously imparting the craqueleur that would reside under the final, polished surface imparting the “look” of an ancient but well-cared-for surface.  The process was simple, one that I have employed before and takes advantage of the properties of the materials found on the shelves of finishing shops.  Well, at least on the shelves of my finishing shop.

As I have written previously I am loathe to contaminate the raw wood with colorant that cannot be easily removed.  Hence my distaste for pigmented “stains,” dyes, or chemical treatments.  I find these techniques to be insufficiently control-able for precision finishing, preferring instead to introduce any coloration into the finish system itself.  Not only is this much more easily controlled but comparatively effortless to undo if the target is missed.

My common terms for this kind of in-finish coloration is “toning” if the coloration is included in the film forming material itself (i.e. the varnish), or “glazing” if the coloration is imparted via a discrete material in-between coats of finish.  In this project I was able to blur the lines in these concepts and add an additional feature to arrive precisely where I wanted to go.

In short, my goal was to provide visual unity of both the color/tone and impart richness to the texture to replicate a finish that gave the appearance of being well-cared-for but 200 years old.  It was not to be a grain filled, brilliantly glistening “French” polished surface, that was simply not appropriate for this project.  I wanted the surface texture to be presented subtly for both the wood grain and the cobwebbed craqueleur within the finish film itself.

Here is a brief recitation of the technique I used to accomplish this.  It depended on understanding the nature of materials and their means of forming films (or not).  There was no magic elixir, but rather an exploitation of those materials.

I began with my glaze formulation, which first consisted of solid acrylic resin beads dissolved in hot mineral spirits to a 25% solids content.  This served as the backbone for the glazing solution and the governor for my desired solvation limits that in turn controlled the craqueleur.

To this I added some oil/resin varnish in the proportion of 1 part acrylic resin solution to 3 parts of varnish, followed by stirring in asphalt as the primary chocolate-y brown colorant and a dab of sienna artists’ oil paint to get the right amount of reddishness, thinned as needed with naphtha.

I slathered this on to the surfaces that had been well-built-up with the shellac base.  The glaze was evenly distributed with a well-worn vintage (and thus soft-ish) bristle brush, pulling off glaze in places where it was imparting too much unnecessary coloration, smoothing it out where the color was correct.

The final step was to soften any striations by whisking the surface with a badger blender or goat hair hak-e brush just before the glaze dried too much to be manipulated further.  The entire process for a particular work area from slather to done was probably about 90 seconds.  This was then allowed to dry overnight.

The next morning to lock it all in place I spritzed it with a light coating of sprayed shellac.  This resulting surface might have sent an inexperienced finisher screaming for the hills but I had a huge smile on my face because the result was exactly what I wanted to achieve.

Let me explain.

The oil-resin varnish and artists’ paint in the glaze had stiffened but were not yet fully hardened, so the introduction of of a more polar solvent (in this case alcohol in the sprayed shellac) to the glaze would cause the glaze film to become imbibed with the solvent, swelling the polymer matrix into a crinkled texture.  On the other hand, since the acrylic resin and asphalt are not susceptible to the same solvation effect they remained calm, otherwise the surface would not have been a variegated craqueleur, it would have been velour.  And, with the glaze film being ultra thin yet bonded to the underlying shellac via the adhesive properties of the acrylic resin component I did not have to worry about the whole laminar construct coming apart.

(NB – I discuss all these properties and effects much more thoroughly in my upcoming book, A Period Finisher’s Manual).

I waited another day to make sure the solvent from the shellac mist coat had diminished sufficiently and abraded the surface very lightly before building more finish.  At this point my main concern was adding too much additional alcohol to the system and causing even more oil/resin film swelling, so rather than brushing on shellac to build the finish I padded it on.  Remember, my goal was not a glistening pad-polished presentation surface.  I padded the finish simply because it was the best way for me to deposit film-forming material while controlling the solvent encroachment.

After enough new finish was added on top of the craqueleur, three applications as I recall, I abraded the entire surface smooth, in essence leaving the craqueleur embedded down in the finish but still presenting a smooth surface that I could polish out.  I built up another half dozen padded applications to the writing surface after the piece was assembled then set it aside for a fortnight before final polishing, assembly and detailing.  As you might surmise the craqueleur was so subtle it was impossible for me to photograph.  It has to be observed in real time and in real space.

It is worth remembering the beginning point for all this color work.

Now it was time for the polishing, assembly and detailing.

Stay tuned.

 

 

 

 

Desk Finishing – I

With the construction finally completed it was time to dive into the part of the project that had no down side, the part where it was all fun all of the time — finishing.  In my back-and-forth with the client I decided to shoot for a non-filled-grain look, a general tonal consistency, and with craqueleure underneath the the final surface.  In short my overall strategy for the process was to have the desk looking like it was “old but well-cared-for,” looking new was not part of the plan, nor was “antiquing” nor “distressing.”

Since the desk was small and convoluted I intended to finished almost all of the pieces prior to final glue-up.  So the full glory of it was not revealed until nearly the last step when all the pieces were put together.  Finishing each piece separately required a careful masking of all the surfaces that were glued together in that assembly.

The first step was to lay down a few seal coats of garnet shellac brushed on in three or four applications of a one pound cut.  This allowed me to get a good sense of how I needed to shift the visual coloration and tone of the pieces to bring them into harmony.  I would make no attempt to make each and every piece identical to the other, that was nonsensical given the variety of grain directions, etc. involved, but simply to bring everything closer en suite.

For the most part the starting point for this shifting was accomplished via the addition of dyes to the garnet shellac being brushed on.  I am loathe to employ chemical stains to bare wood as part of the finishing exercise; they are simply too difficult to control for an equal outcome when the starting points are different, and when they do not behave their reversal (removing the surface of all the wood) induces foul language in the shop.

By building the finish with dyed coatings the depth of the wood’s beauty soon emerged forcefully.

I built the finish steadily, five coats becoming ten, then fifteen.  I smoothed all of the flat surfaces by scraping with razor blades and the curved surfaces with pumice pads and before long I was ready for the home stretch.

But the real magic of final blending of the coloration, along with imparting craqueleure, was achieved in the next step.

Stay tuned.

Guest Post — On Cotton And Linen Rags

A requested piece from my long time friend and collaborator Michele Pagan, a textilian as long as I’ve been a woodworker.  — DCW

Knowing that good rags are a foundational tool for the woodfinishing shop,  my good friend and colleague, Don Williams, invited me  to provide some comments regarding the characteristics of cotton and linen, both plant materials, for the woodworking community.  I am delighted to share my decades of experience in the subject with you, and appreciate Don’s invitation.

If you are a savvy, practical shopper, as I know Don and I both are, you might look for pieces of cotton and linen in your local thrift store, or maybe even an antique shop. Pieces which are possibly already damaged are a very good idea, if your intent is to cut them up into smaller pieces, anyway, to use in various aspects of woodworking and maybe conservation.

Don’t be confused by labels that declare “Table Linens” or “Bed linens” – those are just generic terms which say nothing about whether the table napkins you are considering are actually made of linen. You could find genuine linen in the men’s shirt department – garments always include a fiber content label, which is very helpful in this case. My favorite thing to do is buy cotton flannel sheets, and then use them as table covering in my textile studio.

It’s not always obvious whether you are holding a piece of cotton or linen, for 3 main structural reasons: every fabric has a fiber, a weave structure, and a finish.

All together they can make cotton look like linen, and vice versa. Let’s look at each of these factors sequentially:

First the fiber, and maybe these 2 photographs will help illustrate the difference:

Cotton fiber, cross-section and longitudinal.

Flax cross-section and longitudinal view.

Cotton fiber under the microscope resembles a slightly twisted ribbon – which creates a softer, pliable surface texture. It also allows cotton to absorb a great deal of moisture, and this makes cotton stronger when wet, than when it is dry. Just try to rip apart a piece of wet cotton fabric!

Linen, on the other hand, resembles stalks of bamboo,  stiff  with crosswise nodes. It is because of this more orderly and stiff  structure that linen is stronger than cotton – not terribly much so, but stronger. The strongest of all fibers is nylon, these days used commonly as one of the microfibers – but that is another topic for another day, or blog!

In fact, this chart shows you the abrasion resistance of many of today’s fibers.  As you can see, there are many synthetic fibers which are stronger than either of the 2 cellulosics that we are discussing, but for our purposes, let’s just focus on flax (from which linen fabric is made) and  the slightly less resistant to abrasion fiber, cotton.

In fact, the most basic test you can do – admittedly, not while you are in the store, though – is to place a drop of water on the surface of your used fabric. With linen, you can literally watch the water travel sideways down the length of the yarn.inally, let’s talk about the finish on the surface of any fabric. This is the final step in fabric manufacture, which gives it the beauty which is so desirable.

Normally, linen has a shinier, heavier feel than cotton. It has a nicer “hand” we say. Even though it gets wrinkled just as much as cotton,  it has a more elegant drape to it and just feels heavier. Admittedly, this is an acquired skill – feeling the additional weight of linen vs cotton.

And… this is where finishes come in.  Finishes can be added to cotton to make them appear shinier and smoother than linen, but often these finishes wash out. Certainly with cottons that are bought at antique and thrift shops, the finish may be completely gone. I’m thinking of fabrics like Polished Cotton, or even chintz, which are achieved by the addition of a shiny finish to the top surface of the cotton fabric.

Here’s a very good website, with reasonable prices, in case you just really need to order exactly what you need, rather than trying your luck at the local thrift shop.